Forum PHP 2017



(PHP 5, PHP 7)

mysqli::real_escape_string -- mysqli_real_escape_stringProtège les caractères spéciaux d'une chaîne pour l'utiliser dans une requête SQL, en prenant en compte le jeu de caractères courant de la connexion


Style orienté objet

string mysqli::escape_string ( string $escapestr )
string mysqli::real_escape_string ( string $escapestr )

Style procédural

string mysqli_real_escape_string ( mysqli $link , string $escapestr )

Cette fonction est utilisée pour créer une chaîne SQL valide qui pourra être utilisée dans une requête SQL. La chaîne de caractères escapestr est encodée en une chaîne SQL échappée, en tenant compte du jeu de caractères courant de la connexion.


Securité : Le jeu de caractères par défaut

Le jeu de caractères doit être défini soit au niveau serveur, soit avec la fonction API mysqli_set_charset() pour qu'il affecte la fonction mysqli_real_escape_string(). Voir la section sur les concepts on des jeux de caractères pour plus d'informations.

Liste de paramètres


Seulement en style procédural : Un identifiant de lien retourné par la fonction mysqli_connect() ou par la fonction mysqli_init()


La chaîne de caractères à échapper.

Les caractères encodés sont NUL (ASCII 0), \n, \r, \, ', ", and Control-Z.

Valeurs de retour

Retourne une chaîne de caractères échappée.


Exemple #1 Exemple avec mysqli::real_escape_string()

Style orienté objet

= new mysqli("localhost""my_user""my_password""world");

/* Vérification de la connexion */
if (mysqli_connect_errno()) {
printf("Échec de la connexion : %s\n"mysqli_connect_error());

$mysqli->query("CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE myCity LIKE City");

$city "'s Hertogenbosch";

/* Cette requête échoue car nous n'avons pas échappé $city */
if (!$mysqli->query("INSERT into myCity (Name) VALUES ('$city')")) {
printf("Erreur : %s\n"$mysqli->sqlstate);

$city $mysqli->real_escape_string($city);

/* Cette requête, par contre, réussira car nous avons échappé $city */
if ($mysqli->query("INSERT into myCity (Name) VALUES ('$city')")) {
printf("%d ligne insérée.\n"$mysqli->affected_rows);


Style procédural


/* Vérification de la connexion */
if (mysqli_connect_errno()) {
printf("Échec de la connexion : %s\n"mysqli_connect_error());

mysqli_query($link"CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE myCity LIKE City");

$city "'s Hertogenbosch";

/* Cette requête échoue car nous n'avons pas échappé $city */
if (!mysqli_query($link"INSERT into myCity (Name) VALUES ('$city')")) {
printf("Erreur : %s\n"mysqli_sqlstate($link));

$city mysqli_real_escape_string($link$city);

/* Cette requête, par contre, réussira car nous avons échappé $city */
if (mysqli_query($link"INSERT into myCity (Name) VALUES ('$city')")) {
printf("%d ligne insérée.\n"mysqli_affected_rows($link));


Les exemples ci-dessus vont afficher :

Erreur : 42000
1 ligne insérée.



Si vous êtes habitués à utiliser la fonction mysql_real_escape_string(), notez que les arguments de la fonction mysqli_real_escape_string() ne sont pas identiques à ceux de la fonction mysql_real_escape_string(). L'identifiant link est le premier argument pour la fonction mysqli_real_escape_string(), alors que la chaîne à échapper est le premier argument pour la fonction mysql_real_escape_string().

Voir aussi

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User Contributed Notes 10 notes

tobias_demuth at web dot de
11 years ago
Note, that if no connection is open, mysqli_real_escape_string() will return an empty string!
Josef Toman
7 years ago
For percent sign and underscore I use this:
= addcslashes($escaped, '%_');
arnoud at procurios dot nl
12 years ago
Note that this function will NOT escape _ (underscore) and % (percent) signs, which have special meanings in LIKE clauses.

As far as I know there is no function to do this, so you have to escape them yourself by adding a backslash in front of them.
11 months ago
To escape for the purposes of having your queries made successfully, and to prevent SQLi (SQL injection)/stored and/or reflected XSS, it's a good idea to go with the basics first, then make sure nothing gets in that can be used for SQLi or stored/reflected XSS, or even worse, loading remote images and scripts.

For example:

// Assume this is a simple comments form with a name and comment.

$name = mysqli_real_escape_string($conn, $_POST['name']);
$comments = mysqli_real_escape_string($conn, $_POST['comments']);

// Here is where most of the action happens.  But see note below
     // on dumping back out from the database

     // We should use the ENT_QUOTES flag second parameter...
$name = htmlspecialchars($name);
$comments = htmlspecialchars($comments);

$insert_sql = "INSERT INTO tbl_comments ( c_id, c_name, c_comments ) VALUES ( DEFAULT, '" . $name . "', '" . $comments . "')";

$res = mysqli_query($conn, $insert_sql);
     if (
$res === false ) {
// Something went wrong, handle it

// Now output page showing comments

//  Assume we're in a table with each row containing a name and comment

= mysqli_query($conn, "SELECT c_name, c_comments FROM tbl_comments ORDER BY c_name ASC");

     if (
$res === false )
// Something went wrong

     // Or as you like...
while ( $row = mysqli_fetch_array($res, MYSQLI_BOTH) ) {
// This will output safe HTML entities if they went in
          // They will be displayed, but not interpreted
echo "<tr><td>" . $row['c_name'] . "</td>";
"<td>" . $row['c_comments'] . "</td></tr>";

// BUT, if you make this mistake...
echo "<tr><td>" . htmlspecialchars_decode($row['c_name']) . "</td>";
"<td>" . htmlspecialchars_decode($row['c_comments']) . "</td></tr>";

// ... then your entities will reflect back as the characters, so
          // input such as this: "><img src=x onerror=alert('xss')>
          // will display the 'xss' in an alert box in the browser.


In most cases, you wouldn't want to go way overboard sanitizing untrusted user input, for instance:

= htmlspecialchars( strip_tags($_POST['foo']) );

This will junk a lot of input you might actually want, if you're rolling your own forum or comments section and it's for web developers, for example.  On the other hand, if legitimate users are never going to enter anything other than text, never HTML tags or anything else, it's not a bad idea.

The take-away is that mysqli_real_escape_string() is not good enough, and being overly-aggressive in sanitizing input may not be what you want.

Be aware that in the above example, it will protect you from sqli (run sqlmap on all your input fields and forms to check) but it won't protect your database from being filled with junk, effectively DoS'ing your Web app in the process.

So after protecting against SQLi, even if you're behind CloudFlare and take other measures to protect your databases, there's still effectively a DoS attack that could slow down your Web App for legitimate users and make it a nightmare filled with rubbish that some poor maintainer has to clean out, if you don't take other measures.

So aside from escaping your stings, and protecting against SQLi and stored/reflected XSS, and maliciously loaded images or JS, there's also checking your input to see if it makes sense, so you don't get a database full of rubbish!

It just never ends... :-)
zanferrari at gmail dot com
3 years ago
When I submit data through Ajax I use a little function to reconvert the encoded chars to their original value. After that I do the escaping. Here the function:

   function my_htmlentities($input){
       $string = htmlentities($input,ENT_NOQUOTES,'UTF-8');
       $string = str_replace('&euro;',chr(128),$string);
       $string = html_entity_decode($string,ENT_NOQUOTES,'ISO-8859-15');
       return $string;

dave at
6 years ago
You can avoid all character escaping issues (on the PHP side) if you use prepare() and bind_param(), as an alternative to placing arbitrary string values in SQL statements.  This works because bound parameter values are NOT passed via the SQL statement syntax.
2 years ago
If you wonder why (besides \, ' and ")  NUL (ASCII 0), \n, \r, and Control-Z are escaped: it is not to prevent sql injection, but to prevent your sql logfile to get unreadable.
1 year ago
if ($_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] == "GET" && isset($_GET['value'])) {
    $id = trim($link->real_escape_string($_GET['value']));
    $sql = "DELETE FROM database WHERE IDItem = $id";
    if (!$res = $link->query($sql)) {
        $_SESSION['alertify'] = 'alertify.error("' . $link->error . '")';
    } else {
        $_SESSION['alertify'] = 'alertify.success("' . $value . ' was succesfully deleted")';
kit dot lester at mail dot com
3 years ago
A PHP application I'm working on has many pages which (long story) need to share a PHP API that looks after a MySQL database. Easiest way was to have the app pages AJAX to the API .PHPs.

That means having the JavaScript of the AJAX encodeURIComponent(...) relevant bits of any data to be sent via HTTP POST and GET requests - space as %20 and so on.

But the SQL also needed real_escape_string(...) of the same data.

So I had the issue of whether to do the real_escape_string *before* or *after* encodeURIComponent? in other words in the application PHP or API PHP? Do either of the encodings mangle the other?

The real_escape_string would be "cleaner" in the API, both in principle, and because it needs an instance of mysqli class and there are are unlikely to be instances in the app.

(real_escape_string needs an instance because it's not a  *static* function - I don't know why).

But I suspect that "in the API" is the mangle-avoiding place: the JavaScript encode gets undone by the HTTP call to whichever API element, then the element can safely real_escape_string what is to be put into the database.

Comments would be appreciated.
nmmm at nmmm dot nu
3 years ago
Note unlike PDO string escape, MySQLi does not include apostrophes.

So, you probably want something like this:

    function escape($s){
        $s = $this->mysqli->real_escape_string($s);
        return "'$s'";
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